Eland Latest South African Wheeled Vehicles

Eland Armored Car Encyclopedia

Eland Armored Car Encyclopedia

Contents

South Africa (1962)
Armored Car – 1600 Built

“Eland” African Antelope

Eland's Tank (more generally generally known as its nicknamed “Noddy Car” by referring to the favored Noddy Toyland TV show ) takes the identify of Africa from Africa, the world's largest antelope. Identical to its nickname, Eland advanced to adapt to the robust South African surroundings. Its design, adaptation and manufacturing preceded the accession of South Africa to worldwide embargoes (1977) because of its racial segregation (Apartheid). In the background of the South African Cold Struggle, when liberation actions rose sharply with the help of the Communist nations of the Japanese Bloc, similar to Cuba and the Soviet Union

Eland 90 Mk7 Workforce – Grootfontein within the mid-1980s, with permission of Eric Prinsloo

Improvement

Union Protection Forces (UDF), who got here to the South African Defense Forces (SADF), used Ferret armored automobiles in the late 1950s. The subsequent macroeconomic environmental research within the early 1960s showed that the most certainly conflict in South Africa can be in expeditionary and resistance movements where Ferret was not suitable. This shortage induced the purchase of a contemporary lightweight, calmly armored, well-armed, long-range intelligence car. Initially, three armored automobiles have been thought-about Saladinina, Panhard EBR (Panhard Engin Blindé de Reconnaissance: Armored Vans) and Panhard AML (Auto Mitrailleuse Légère: Mild Armored Car). Finally, the four-wheeled AML was thought-about probably the most applicable to satisfy the specified position in South Africa.

Eland 90 Mk7 Group – Grootfontein in the mid-1980s, with the permission of Eric Prinsloo

AML 60's first testing of its 60 mm Brandt Mle CM60A1 software was not in use in hearth and South Africa requested for extra firepower. This led Panhard to design a new tower that might fit a DEFA 90 mm low strain quick burner. South Africa bought 100 AML and different turrets, engines and elements for 800 extra armored automobiles. Manufacturing AML 60 and 90 (Eland 60 and 90) can be one among South Africa's most formidable weapons manufacturing packages since World Conflict II. The AML 60 and 90 manufactured by the South African industrial company Sandrock-Austral started in 1961, when the first batch was taken to service exams in 1962 to Eland Mk1. Principally, they have been nonetheless in French AML 60s and 90s. These armored automobiles contained 40% of native content, and a lot of the gadgets have been bought from Panhard.

South Africa acquired licenses to supply car chassis and tower independently of Panhard in 1964. The tower was manufactured at Austral Engineering's Wadeville & Sandock-Australian body in Boksburg and Durban. The outcome was a collection of improvements that may make the armored automotive better on the African terrain. The Eland Mk2 had an improved control system and brakes, 56 of which have been delivered while Eland Mk3 saw the installation of a brand new custom gasoline system. The Eland Mk4 contained two different modifications, which included changing the electric change with a more dependable typical model, and the transfer of fireside management from the gun to the tower handwheel. Other minor enhancements have been made, for example, by changing the gasoline tank cap with a cable with much less noise. By 1967, the armored automobiles produced by South Africa only reminded their French counterparts once they used 66% of South African elements

Eland 90 Mk6 outdoors Grootfontein in 1977. With the permission of Neville Bowden

Since 1972 356 Eland An Mk5 armored automotive can be built. That they had a new Common Motors 2.5 liter water-cooled four-cylinder petrol engine put in on the rails to facilitate quicker alternative on the ground (40 minutes) and scale back upkeep. Further enhancements included new communication units, spring shock absorbers, wheels and impellers.

In 1975, the Mk6 replace introduced 1,016 (all beforehand produced Eland characters) to the Mk5 normal. The ultimate model of Eland, Mk7, was delivered to manufacturing in 1979 and contained a new elevated commander's dome from Ratel ICV, headlamps shifting from a decrease Glacis station to an elevated place, new brakes, improved transmission, and extended entrance to make the driving force place more snug on average to a better South African soldier.

Eland 60 and 90 turned the usual armored automotive of the regiments of the armored automotive of the SADF (South African Defense Forces) and within the intelligence position when it was put on tank tank. SADF used Elandia with everlasting troops in an armored faculty, 1 South African tanker unit and a couple of South African tanker models. With the help of emergency forces, Eland was utilized by Natal Mounted Rifles, Umvoti-mounted rifles, regiment Oranje Rivier (Cape City), regiment Mooirivier (Potchefstroom), Regiment Molopo (Potchefstroom), Mild Horse, President Steyn, Prince Alfred Guards, 2 Armor Car Body, eighth (Durban) , Head of the Army Reserve of the Armed Forces and Cellular Middle of the Armed Forces (former Seventh Chamber). In Southwest Africa, Elandia was used by the Southwest Territorial Area and a couple of South African Infantry Battalions (Walvisbay). South Africa is the one Olifant Mk1A consumer to exchange Olifant Mk2.

Eland was faraway from the late 1980s, when its internally produced compensation, the Rooikat 76 armored automotive, started its service. Eland formally left the South African National Armed Forces in 1994. In South Africa, Elandia is found in most army bases, as gatekeepers and a number of other pairs of working circumstances are saved in army museums. SA Armor Museum in Bloemfontein. Several Elands have also found their method into the arms of private collectors and overseas museums

Greater than 1600 automobiles have been constructed upon completion of production. Eland's armored automotive family, including a 20 mm fast-acting cannon, continues to be in use with overseas armies, together with Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Gabo, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Morocco, the Sahara Arab Democratic Republic, Senegal, Uganda, [19659008] Outdoors Eland 90 Mk7 Katiman 1980. With the permission of Antonie Goosen

Planning Options

Eland saw continuous improvements to the original AML all through production, making it a more skilled African battlefield. Based on the position of a light-weight, closely armed exploration car, Eland might pack a decisive punch if mandatory, making it a flexible weapon at some stage in the platform.

The next sections particularly cowl the Mk7 variant, until in any other case said. 19659005] Mobility

The battlefield in South Africa favors a cycling entity the place Elands' everlasting 4 × Four configuration matches properly. It had four cut up edges, 12:00 x 16 m, flat Dunlop rings (designed to face up to deflation effects when piercing), leading to larger reliability and mobility.

Eland has a guide transmission with a normal gearbox. The gear selection space consists of each high and low ranges, six forward, one impartial and one reverse gear. For cross-country snowboarding, two low-speed gears are used, one for prime gear and one for reverse. Within the low range, the traditional four-to-four vary of the frequency converter is used between the four upper gear models (4-6).

Eland is just not an amphibian, but it could possibly turn 1.5 m of water when it is made (plug into the floor). It is utilized by a Common Motors Four-cylinder, 2.5-liter petrol engine that may produce 107 hp (80 kW) at 2400 rpm. This supplies a 20.6 hp / t energy weight ratio for Eland 60 and 17.Eight hp / t for Eland 90. The maximum velocity of the official street velocity is 90 km / h (56 mph), but the atypical and unofficial check has reached 140 km / h (87 mph). Protected cruising velocity is 80 km / h (50 mph). Within the terrain it might attain 30 km / h (18.6 mph), which was enough to stick with Olifant Mk1A.

A 0.5 m extensive ditch may be crossed and may climb to a 60% slope. There are two detachable channels on the entrance of the car, which allow Eland to cross ditches large. Eland is provided with absolutely unbiased lively arms, springs and shock absorbers. The driving force makes use of a transmission system that controls two front wheels and foot pedals for acceleration and braking. Eland's ground clearance is 380 mm, which, together with simply four wheels, typically led to it getting stuck in a very tough terrain, far from excellent.

Eland 90 Mk6 Outdoors Grootfontein 1977. With the permission of Neville Bowden

Sustainability and Logistics

Eland's gasoline capability is 142 liters (37.5 US gallons), enabling it to run 450 km (280 miles) ) on the street, 240 km (149 miles off-road and 120 km (

) Eland 90 and 60 are outfitted with two 7.62mm M1919 browning machine guns, certainly one of which is mounted parallel to the axle and the opposite on prime of the tower, next to the commander station. To ensure safety, Eland 90 carries 3800 rounds of machine guns and 2400 rounds of Eland 60, and it ought to be noted that with artistic stacks, more machine weapons might be carried on the left aspect of both variants

B-56 ​​long on the rear right aspect of the tower range and B-26 brief vary radio that permits tactical communication that permits dependable oh and steerage. `s power multiplier on the battlefield. This communication, coupled with a well-trained crew, led to coordinated (however nail-biting) attacks on T-54/55 MBT throughout numerous Border Conflict operations (mentioned later).

Eland Mk7 obtained a a lot needed storage tray behind the tower. Pre-Mk7 Elands had no built-in consuming water tank, and crews had to transport water in 20 liters (5.2 US gallons) of jerry oil, which was transported outdoors the driving force's left door in the bracket. The crews have been improvised and stored consuming water in unused ammunition and used primary gun instances outdoors the frame. The Mk7 had a built-in 40 liter (10.5 US gallon) consuming water tank put in at the rear of the car via which the crew reached it via a copper press

Eland's crew of 90 Mk7 at work releasing their car after it had crashed right into a flooded shona (floodplain) in the course of the annual rainy season in Owamboland – South West Africa / Namibia. Neville Bowden with Chris van der Walt's permission.

Car Format

Eland has three crew members as commonplace, consisting of a commander, a shooter and a driver.

The commander station is situated on the left aspect of the tower when the propeller sits on the fitting aspect. Visibility for both is achieved with four L794B episcopals that provide visibility. Gunner can even use the M37 Illustrative Episcopal, which provides x6 magnification. The entrance and exit of the Eland 90 commander and capturing range are by means of a one-piece hatch for anybody who opens behind. Eland 60 had one elongated hatch for each the commander and the bend, which was additionally opened behind. In an emergency, the propeller and commander can escape by way of the driving force's entrance doorways, situated on both aspect of the chassis between the entrance and rear wheels. An fascinating point is the socket situated on the left front of the chassis, where the commander can shoot if wanted.

The driving force place is situated on the front of the chassis and may be accessed via the above doors. or a one-piece door that opens to the correct above the driving force's position. The driving force's station has restricted adjustability, which makes it troublesome for top drivers to function. The one-piece hatch consists of three built-in periscopes that improve visibility and situational awareness. The central periscope might be replaced with a passive night-time episcopy (manufactured by Eloptro), which allows the entire day / night time.

Eland 90 Mk7 Prime Driver Drive, Dewald Venter (SA Armor Museum)

Principal Arming [19659003] Eland 90 was armed with GIAT 90 mm F1 weapon named GT-2 South In Africa and made by Denel Land Methods. To combat it, it might ignite the low-speed excessive explosion-sensitive (HE), excessive explosion-proof tank (HEAT-T), white phosphorus (WP-SMK) and canister revolutions. HE had a resolution of as much as 2200 m and a HEAT-T of 1200 m and was capable of penetrate as much as 320 mm of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) on a zero scale and 150 mm at a 60 diploma angle. The spread of the HEAT-T round and the armor impact destroyed the South African T34 / 85 in the early part of the South African border region. When the T-54/55 got here into battle, the South African Eland 90 crew needed to take full advantage of the small measurement and velocity of their car to border them. A number of photographs of Eland 90 have been wanted to take away and destroy new tanks.

The HE round was weighed with 5.27 kg and was very effective towards frivolously armored automobiles, wells and bunkers. To regulate the primary gun suggestions, a single cylinder with a permanent rigidity spring and hydropneumatic recovery is used to return the primary gun to its unique place after burning. A well-trained crew might shoot the primary gun either at a standstill or in a short cease each 8 to 10 seconds. The tower may be rotated 360 degrees utterly in less than 25 seconds, though typical apply was no more than 90 levels left or proper within the middle. The primary weapon can rise from -Eight levels to +15 degrees. Resulting from its small measurement, Eland 90 was capable of carry solely 29 essential gun turns, 20 of which have been stored behind the tower and 9 in the rack between the driving force and the car commander.

Eland 60 retained the original AML 60 tower and used a 60 mm M2 loading mortar manufactured by South Africa. It might shoot a 1.72 kg bomb at 200 m / s in a direct position of 2000 m. A total of 56 bombs, consisting of a mixture of bombs and lighting rounds, are transported. Crucial weaponry can rise from -11 degrees to +75 degrees. The typical hearth was 6-Eight bombs per minute. It was mainly used for counter-attack and the protection of convoys, as its essential stop was devastatingly effective towards infantry and dug in places resembling bunkers and wells. It serves primarily in Southwest Africa (Namibia) in northern areas

Eland 60 Mk6 ammunition outdoors Kwando 1976. With permission of Carel Viljoen

SADF Eland 60 Mk7

SADF Eland 90 Mk7, disguised, Angola, 1979.


Eland 20 Mk6

]

Eland 90, FAR (Royal Morocan Armed Forces), Dialogue of Polisarioa, 1979. [19659047] All illustrations are on Tank Encyclopedia's personal David Bocquelet.

Hearth Management System

Gunner uses the day view of the Eloptro 6x gun. The Eland 90 gun is placed by hand, while the gun is detected by a telescopic view related to the primary gun. Eland 90's fundamental gun was not established because of the lack of a tower wheel. This required exceptionally expert Eland 90 crews, who needed to work together to get enemy targets as quick as potential and reduce their publicity and remove them earlier than they have been shot.

Eland 90 Mk7 Gun Selector Change (Notice Two Afrikaans and English Names), Dewald Venter (SA Armor Museum)

Protection

Eland consisted of welded metal frames of 8 to 12 mm thickness and which protects from rifle-fires, grenades, and medium-sized artillery velocity fragments. Nevertheless, it was susceptible to larger than 12.7 mm. The 2 columns of two electrically powered 81 mm smoke grenades are situated on the left and proper of the rear of the tower and are used for self-mapping in an emergency. Behind the left smoke grenade launchers are two tubes that always combine with the previous. They’re used to install the primary weapon cleaning brush and OBS (Previous Brown Sherry) when the crew turned cold. The front lights are armored with protective covers and are situated on the entrance the place they’re raised to protect towards injury as they cross alongside the sleeve. Due to its small measurement, it was never outfitted with a fireplace extinguishing system. The crews had a lot of hand hearth extinguishers, one on the appropriate front of the car, above the fitting wheel and the opposite on the crew compartment

VARIANTS

Eland 20
In 1971, SADF positioned the requirement that Eland be outfitted with a 20 mm essential gun. Eland 60 (named Vuilbaard [Dirty beard]) was outfitted with a Hispano-Suiza 20 mm feasibility check. The outcomes have been unsatisfactory, and the identical occurred at first of 1972, however by installing the F2 20mm (imported for the Ratel 20 ICV venture) within the tower. Each towers have been tested by capturing towards each other and F2 got here out. Then SADF dropped its calls for and targeted on Eland 60 and 90. Eland 20 used exactly the same tower as Ratel 20. The 20 mm F2 can hearth one, one automated (80 revolutions per minute) and the automatic (750 revolutions per minute). It had the additional advantage of being a Duel feeder, which meant that the shooter might change between HE and AP with a change. It additionally retained a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and was additionally capable of attach a further 7.62 mm machine gun to the ceiling. Morocco purchased several automobiles. Finally, Morocco bought a number of Eland 20 armored automobiles around 1980-1982.

Eland ENTAC
Within the late 1960s, SADF carried out a warfare recreation that simulates the attack of SWA. One of many shortcomings noted was that Eland 90 did not have the required beats to absorb the potential enemy MBTs. To beat this deficiency, two exterior rails have been added to the Eland tower, every of which was coated by a missile towards the container managed by the ENTAC wire.

Eland 90TD
When Eland regularly stepped out of SADF, Reumech OMC saw the opportunity to additional enhance Eland Mk7 to realize worldwide sales. The Eland 90TD had a turbocharged, water-cooled Four-cylinder diesel engine that produced the same HP as a petrol engine, however was rather more dependable and less flamable. It’s unclear whether or not the variations of Eland TD have ever been bought.

Operational Historical past

Eland revealed almost three many years in SADF, more often than not spent within the South African border region. As predicted, the conflict was made up of cross-border rebels and Eland was later deployed in the north of SWA in 1969 to counter the menace. The Namibian Individuals's Liberation Army (PLAN) rebels then began a campaign that disrupted the 20 years of South Africa's transportation and logistics community. Elands have been escorted by escorts, and it soon turned obvious that they have been weak to landmines. This led South Africa to develop mining-resistant automobiles similar to Buffel Mine Protected Car (MPV) and Casspir Armored Personnel Carriers (APC), which would take over the paralyzing and counter-action. This need for mining-resistant automobiles inadvertently led South Africa to develop into a world chief in necessity.

Eland 90 performed an necessary position as an intelligence, anti-tank, and hearth protection platform within the typical part (since 1975). It was involved in a number of SADF actions including Savannah (1975-1976), Reindeer (Might 1978), Skeptic (June 1980), Protea (August 1981) and Askari (December 1983). Erane's 90's limitations have been achieved during Operation Askar. The release of the Individuals's Armed Forces from Angola's Liberation (FAPLA), T54 / 55 MBT, stretched the Eland 90 crew to a restricted extent, as a result of MBTs wanted a number of photographs from several armored automobiles to be able to mirror. The restricted variety of main weapon rounds brought about the issue of such connections and accelerated the fatigue of the primary gun restoration system. As well as, Elands 90 was unable to answer Ratel 90's cross-country snowboarding. The inspection panel's operation Askari said that Eland 90 was one of many shortcomings of the progressive age. The later armor impact was transferred to Ratel 90, which used the same towers as Eland 90, however who has a better benefit that improved general performance. Eland 90 was later faraway from the entrance line service in Angola and was regularly positioned on the duty for which it was meant, contrary to rebel. Eland 60 and 90 have been relocated by means of escorts, joint patrols, guarding strategic institutions, making human obstacles, and looking and destroying operations in SWA. Eland 90 was additionally used as a Ratel 90 training car

Eland's last major use passed off at the peak of the Border Struggle in the course of the Operation Module (August 1987). October fifth Eland 90s, backed by an infantry outfitted with anti-tank weapons, set up violence on the north of Ongiva. The attack was a hit, and the SADF forces attacked and destroyed a FAPLA-powered contingent consisting of BTR-60, the BTR-40 APC and a truck-mounted infantry once they went to Ongiva.

Conclusion

The border area in 1989 and then peace, protection spending was reduce sharply. After Rooika 76, Elands' head was on the horizon. For a short time period, the SADF thought-about that no less than one Elands fleet can be lively if it have been necessary to create airborne armor amenities. Nevertheless, this was carried out shortly as a result of the deployment of forces outdoors the border space was very distant and continued strain reduces the variety of older units. Later, the brand new SANDF retired from Eland's service in 1994. This choice turned out to be flawed as a result of SANDF would deploy Africa as a part of UN peacekeeping operations. Eland continues to be in use with many African nations

Eland 90 Mk7 Specifications

Dimensions (body) (lwh): 4.04 m (13.2 ft) – 2.01 m (6.59 ft) ) – 2.5 m (8.2 ft) Complete weight, completed 6 tonnes Crew three Propulsion Basic Motors 2.5 liter, water-cooled four-cylinder petrol engine, which produces 107 horsepower @ 2400 rpm. (17,890 hp) Suspension Absolutely unbiased lively arm Prime velocity street / off-road 90 km / h (18 mph) off-road 450 km ( 280 mi) / 240 km (19 mi) Military (see notes)

Secondary weapon

90 mm GT-2 low rear-mounted weapon

1 × 7, 62 mm coaxial Browning MG
1 x 7.62 mm in entrance of the command lid door

Armor 8 and 12 mm thick defending rifles, grenades and medium-sized artillery towards velocity fragments

[19459034

Eland 60 Mk7 Specifications

Dimensions (body) (lwh): Four.04 m (13.2 ft) – 2.01 m (6.59 ft) – 1.8 m (5.9 ft)
Complete weight, accomplished 5.2 tonnes
Crew three
Propulsion Basic Motors 2.5 liter water-cooled four-cylinder a petrol engine that produces 107 horsepower @ 2400 rpm. (20.6 hp / t)
Suspension Absolutely unbiased lively arm
Prime velocity street / off-road 90 km / h (56 km / h)
off-road 450 km (280 mi) / 240 km (19 mi)
Army (see notes)

Secondary weapon

60 mm M2 loading

1 × 7.62 mm coaxial Browning MG
1 x 7.62 mm in front of the command lid door

Armor Eight and 12 mm thick that protects rifles, grenades and medium-sized artillery towards velocity fragments

Eland's videos

Eland 90 tank

Eland 60 Mobility Bar

The writer wishes to thank Seargent Main Sieg Marais, the curator of the South African Army Museum particularly

Bibliography

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Clay A. 2019. Briggen (Ret). Eland's hull and tower improvement. Facebook correspondence from Pantserbond / Armor Affiliation. June 12, 2019

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