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Discussion with Marjorie Perloff – Tablet magazine

I awoke in Los Angeles with a small jet delay and set up a recreation plan that allowed me to depart from the noticeable poem critic Marjorie Perloff when the storm came out within the morning and literally shook the house.

I've by no means seen such rain. Moving into the automotive was like an action journey movie. I made my method down the floodplain with windshield wipers within the hyperspeed, and questioned for the sight that the muscle disc swept towards me and swallowed all of it. I used to be positive the world would end before Marjorea and I might even begin.

But when the motorway was out of the gray cloud above Hollywood, the exit ramp led virtually magically to Brentwood. The air and roads have been 100% dry once I pulled Marjorie here. What a storm?

As a small poet who carried out an interview with an enormous poet critic, I knew I used to be out of my league. At greatest, I hoped for a standard floor. Perhaps slightly little bit of compassion. Smile. However I shortly discovered that "it's not just a great moment for poetry." Ouch.

Where did I feel I was going to explore this smile? For a sense of connection? In his current ebook, Ironian Edge, a handful of very troublesome Austrian writers, together with the infinitely confused Vienna thinker Ludwig Wittgenstein? In his controversial Unoriginal Genius publication, was the inadvertence of the conceptual poetry motion explored? In his memo- ration that he flees from European nudification as a toddler? His landmark in his early e-book concerning the poet Frank O & Hara? Or perhaps the scandalous Carl Andre sample that he and I each spent plenty of time considering retrospective itemizing of the large Dia Artwork Foundation in 2014.

I merely didn’t predict that Marjorie would give his guard immediately and utterly, and that we might go easily in. and out of a lot of the subjects that got here up. Nor can we giggle a lot concerning the tales of buddies like John Ashbery and John Cage – the early results that also make me need to be a poet once I develop up.

Three hours later, most of all stated formally. However once I packed it, I noticed that the majority of our conversation would in all probability should be left on report. My phrases have been "Don't worry, I'll clean it. Then we can decide which bridges we really want to burn." he stood

Jeremy Sigler: What's next for you

Marjorie Perloff:?.. I have no idea I'm so previous I cannot stop scientific articles and books, writing

JS. But Marjorie, do you are feeling still the youngest out of hand and virtually. every thing you say or write arouses confusion. ] JS: I went to Charles Bernstein the opposite day within the Brooklyn neighborhood, he’s a poet I know we both admire and don’t seem to be too disenchanted with poetry.

MP: Charles and I have fantastic conversations about what's happening within the poem. As a poet he naturally needs a variety of work, but I find it troublesome to simply accept. Look, when the language faculty of poetry started, Charles was a radical, opposing poet who exploded brilliantly within the "official culture" as he referred to as. However now, sadly, a lot of what he previously condemned, such because the "theory of poetry transit – from me to you," has returned with revenge. Now the criterion of poetry is again very romantic, filled with testimony of private ache and struggling in relation to gender, race or disability, and so on.

JS: Sure. Nevertheless it have to be politically right pain. Try to brutally write an trustworthy politically misguided e-book of confessional poetry, even when you’ve got good irony and self-squeezing humor, and see how far you get. Proper now solely certain individuals can say sure things.

MP: Once I had lunch a short while in the past, I turned on the news after which changed the channel shortly to TCM to observe the previous movie!

JS: I'm not blaming you. To be able to stay in the present pressure, you have to be ready to take the hazmat go well with and sweep by means of this poisonous slurry. I’ve to confess that my appetite disappeared up to the New York Occasions and NPR for, and now I have set myself a pure Franz Schubert's food plan. Speaking of music, can we speak about your current interview with the Brazilian musician Caetano Veloso? I am an enormous fan. But I can't imagine that he would truly meet him personally.

MP: Oh, we really hit it once I was in Rio a couple of years ago. I really like him! Caetano is a really well-known composer / singer who combines pop and avant-garde parts. And he was in touch with Augustus and Haroldo de Campos, two Brazilian concrete poet, which I’ve written for years. They usually introduced him to Ezra's pound work.

JS: How did the relationship with Caetano develop?

MP: We did a stay chat at the 2016 Trendy Language Affiliation in Austin, Texas. Lots of my colleagues have been skeptical and questioned who would hear such an unlikely couple speaking. And have you learnt who came? Along with MLA members, the Hilton Lodge employees took time and heard Caetano! It was just a room. Individuals crawl walls. And it was nice because Roland Greene's objective, which was the MLA President in 2016 and the person who introduced me to Brazilian poetry, was to succeed in out to a wider viewers, past the viewers of English academics and college students.

JS: And your latest guide, Edian of Irony, can also be reaching the public.

MP: Yes. Although the ebook just isn’t particularly for the American audience, the guide is common in Poland as anyplace else.

JS: You level out how this versatile, multilingual and broad geographic culture shrunk into a nationalist, mainly conservative Germanic area, virtually in a single day. Examine its lowered type to the chart

MP: And I concentrate on a few of the 19th century Vienna writers, akin to Robert Musil, Karl Kraus, Paul Celan, Joseph Roth and Elias Canet.

JS:… who weren’t formally so radical that they didn't use collage or the stream of consciousness, and so forth., but used more typical types hooked up to irony. They have been what you name "the irony of the wild and grotesque comic". The moments of your guide are comic, but general it is rather disturbing.

MP: Why?

JS: As a result of it deals with anti-Semitism. And the battles of so many writers, a few of them Jewish, and yet manifestly anti-Semitic. Every thing could be very worrying. At some point (earlier than World Warfare II) they lived in a fairly liberal and really Jewish society, after which this unprecedented battle for Nazism.

MP: Nicely, like Karl Kraus, the Jews definitely flourished before the World Warfare. But as early because the early 20th century, as Joseph Roth points out in lots of his brief stories, there have been already swindles in all places, and brochures from summer time data had already made it clear that Jews couldn’t be accepted.

JS: The Anti Semitism was current all the time.

MP: Yes, since 1933, when Hitler came to power, the Jews have been persecuted in a means that now seems incomprehensible. I hear about this or this microaggression in the present day. And I need to reply: “Do you know what is worse than microaggression? Makragressio. ”

JS: What's the difference?

MP: A micro group is an unintentional small one that has no privilege, often a member of a minority group. And such micro-aggressions in our tradition have an effect on deep-seated prejudices. But macro-aggression shouldn’t be a question of violating words, however of open and damaging motion towards someone.

JS: Brute pressure. As a toddler, your loved ones was pressured out of Vienna. You're definitely a macro financial system sufferer

MP: Sure. Even my very own youngsters and grandchildren don’t perceive what it meant as a refugee from Vienna, day after day, and utterly without warning – and depart our flats in Vienna, depart all our property, and one way or the other cross the borders to Switzerland, as a result of there isn’t a concept where we’ll finally be settled! After which it’s a must to flee to a wierd nation (USA) and start once more.

JS: And right here we’re sitting in this fantastic house on this beautiful part of Los Angeles [19659002] MP: Nicely, it's half a century later. And there was no less than some luck right here. We had been fairly dangerous for years after arriving in america. I couldn't give atypical center-class things like skates and solely two or three clothes. Only many years later my heart specialist and husband acquired an inexpensive revenue and I also had a very good professor wage, regardless that I’m not wealthy.

JS: To return to my guide, I discovered the last chapter of Wittgenstein to be notably fascinating.

MP: Certainly, why? He's my hero.

JS: I do not likely need him, however I all the time discovered his biography confused.

MP: Was it his conversion to Christianity? Or that his father did a lot within the Austrian oil business?

JS: I feel it was his gesture to provide away his heritage! And after World Conflict II he appeared to give up philosophy to turn into a gardener after which a main faculty instructor in a rural faculty.

MP: It was within the hope that leading a traditional life would make him a better individual

JS: But he typically misplaced his character and swept the boxing into the younger scholar's ear. And this made him shoot.

MP: But his idealistic aim was definitely admirable, and Wittgenstein was all the time as exhausting as himself. I feel he was a mannequin of self-examination in many ways. Understand that he was struggling all through his life and that he all the time felt alienated from his surroundings – first from Vienna, then from Cambridge. And then, unusually, his final phrases have been, "Tell them I have had a wonderful life."

JS: He died of most cancers on the age of 52 years. There was so much melancholy and suicide within the household. I get the feeling that he was tortured, how he wrote the books again and again. Are you positive he was not ironic when he referred to his life as "wonderful?"

MP: No. I feel he believed it absolutely. In a sense, he was a "wonderful life" because he was capable of make a real contribution to philosophy and "become a different person". He worked arduous to beat the shortcomings of the character of the work: like his impatience with others, his shamelessness, and what he considered laziness.

However I consider he was tortured ultimately because he was in the closet for his homosexuality. He tried arduous to disclaim it to himself and to others all through his life. The query of sexuality was full, particularly in his early years, as the key magazines testify. She teased herself as much as masturbating. Like his idol Tolstoy, he dreamed of being "pure." So when he says, "I want to be a different person," he means he needs to steer a less vigorous, loner life – a life moderately than a very good job.

JS: I assumed that his concept of ​​turning into a "different person" with assimilation – the destruction of its Jewish ethnic origin. I saw his motivation to take the soldier and battle in the conflict. I’m reminded of Roth's The Radetzky Marchia, who describes a very trendy Jew who buys his son as a cavalry from the Commission as a result of, in any case, the cavalry was a sign of an aristocrat.

MP: Query The Jew had been struck by him unexpectedly until the early 1930s, when he needed to admit to himself that he belonged to a persecuted spiritual and ethnic group. He had introduced out a Catholic, and he all the time beloved – although he didn’t consider utterly – Christianity. Like most of the rich, cultivated Jews in Vienna, he was himself a slightly anti-Semitic.

In the tactic, Wittgenstein says, "The importance of the world must be outside the world", which is a tremendous statement. [19659002] JS: In different words, you’ll be able to't give answers to many life questions whenever you stay.

Wittgenstein's biography is a very superb story. And so is Marjorie. I discovered the 2004 memo, the paradox of Vienna. Typically I hope to write down a autobiography. I'm curious how you are feeling concerning the biographies of poets usually.

MP: Properly, autobiography is one thing, however biographical criticism may be very deceptive. Roland Barthes was proper in the early 1960s to proclaim "the death of the author." All he actually meant was that work could not be considered the belief of elements of the writer's life, which was the usual form of educational criticism. totally different "Life & Letters" collection which are so widespread. The work itself was not thought-about a mere life.

JS: And you've all the time been a critic, not a biographer

MP: Sure, I’ve a ebook referred to as Circling the Canon that covers the two guide choices I wrote between 1969 and 2017. It comes out of New Mexico University's press.

JS: Nice title. However shouldn't it’s: Canon Circling? Marjorie Perloff is Canon. Exhausting and accurate

MP: I have taken the hits. However the first quantity has a variety of moderately damaging evaluations that start from the very first – The Far Point by Anthony Hecht's The Arduous Hours for the now outlined Canadian. At the moment, I was important and skim every little thing I might get on a specific matter. And I assumed I needed to be trustworthy so long as I might again up my judgments. So I acquired into hassle. Nevertheless, I’ve to admit that I’ll return and assessment these previous estimates in any case these years, I have never changed my thoughts.

JS: It's very fascinating. I have this feeling of worry of some evaluations a decade in the past. Perhaps I was a bit too harsh. The painter once stated that I had knocked him out of his horse, and my answer was that I had not expected that he would ever hassle to learn the assessment.

MP: Don't feel dangerous. Lots of my harsh critiques have been criticism from colleagues, akin to Helen Vendler and Harold Bloom. It is strange to learn these estimates now, as a result of I’ve come to flow into both of them a lot more. Both of them care a lot about poetry, and this passion is finally most essential to me.

In any case, my evaluation changed when some 100 books have been sent to the omnibus evaluate, David Shapiro and Ron Padgett's anthology of New York poets

JS: I really like this e-book. And its cover. Letters are made by hand and include small illustrations of cherries, plugs and butterflies. Joe Brainard is, in fact.

MP: Sure! Then I fell in love with Frank O! I introduced her in my evaluate. And then I might take a look at virtually the whole lot I needed for the new Republic. Today are gone ceaselessly. My editor was writer and critic Doris Grumbach. He’s nonetheless alive, over 100 and lives in Maine. Anyway, Doris was an unimaginable ebook editor, very adventurous. Once I needed to verify one thing, I simply ask Doris, and he says principally: "Go ahead, check it." It might by no means occur now.

JS: Do you need to guess? Once I referred to as to interview you, the editor wrote again in lower than 30 seconds, "Go straight forward. I really like him. ”Not Requested.

MP: Wow! I’m stunned and grateful that it’s true. In any case, I checked Frank O Haran Artwork Chronicles for the New Republic. In response, Michael Braziller, son of the exceptional writer George Braziller, wrote me and stated, "How would you like to put in writing Frank O & # 39; And I assumed this was engaging. I didn't need to write a biography because I'm not likely a biographer. O my Hara guide is a important introduction. And when the individuals of Braziller read my first character, they were not so completely happy as a result of they needed me to deliver more biography. However I used to be reluctant as a result of O & # 39; Hara's untimely dying – he was hit by a fireplace within the shore and was only 40 – was lots of romantic and tense speculation, and I didn't need to take part in all this. 19659002] JS: But your ebook is a bit personal, sure?

MP: Yes. Though I consider I am scientific, I can’t write bizarre private, equitable educational text. I used to be colleagues once I taught in Catholic U, who never ask themselves in the event that they favored their books: They only taught them. I feel it's unimaginable. I just train what I really like. I have been educating trendy poetry, and I cannot assume that I ought to cover each "leading" the poet. I don't often depart Robert Frost.

I was as soon as a fantastic Virginia Woolf fan: I truly wrote my M.A. dissertation on Woolf, however through the years I got here across to seek out some fiction too. At Stanford we had a primary research course, which was all the time finished with the Lighthouse. I advised enjoyably school assembly: "I am completely happy to show a course so long as I don’t need to incorporate the lighthouse. My colleagues looked at me extremely, as I might say, how dare you say that?

JS: Let me guess: you'd somewhat end up with Gertrude Stein

MP: Yes, Gertrude Stein would have been fantastic! At Stanford I as soon as gave a doctoral seminar to Stein, and the originally mystified college students got here to love him. We even act on considered one of his plays. His work is toughness and delicate, endlessly difficult. However exhausting to put many readers away.

JS: One way or the other his heritage has come up to now, even with out individuals figuring out his writing so properly. And he was additionally concerned about biography and autobiography.

MP: Like his biography. However typically biography generates myths. My pricey pal and major William Carlos Williams scientists Emily Mitchell Wallace believes that the suggestion made by totally different biographers that Williams had many additional-marital points shouldn’t be true. He thinks that so-referred to as proofs in poems with such erotic moments are largely fantasy.

JS: I feel I share this idea, though I'm unsure where it comes from. Perhaps as a result of Williams was a physician and pediatrician, like my dad, I often assume he lived in a healthy life and that he was a very good guy.

MP: I wouldn't have referred to as him right. He was common on the Walter Arensberg salon. He was a part of a bohemian circle. And poems like pretty lyric in the spring and all that begin with "What about all this writing?" Dramatize the love between nurse and hospital-based mostly physician. Is Williams From His Life? We will't make sure and it doesn't matter. In Voices and Visions, there’s a fantastic scene the place Allen Ginsberg tells this poem ("O Kiki! / Miss Margaret Jarvis!") Strolling by means of an empty hospital. I really like handy over Ginsberg's local weather strains. “I was a nightgown. / I watched. ”

JS: You say that the text does not essentially produce correct life info. It is fascinating that Ginsberg is a type of guide because he’s both Out and a poet of every little thing. He by no means seems to have something to hide. Though he was initially troublesome, he taught himself to be very daring. So on this sense he was not likely enigmatic. Returning to Ludwig Wittgenstein. He was a mystery.

MP: True. Take, for instance, a cottage that he had in Norway and was out of attain of the fjord in any center. And the question is why did he typically depart Cambridge and go there to be alone? As quickly as I examined it, the reality got here out that he was typically not alone. She was often there with her many pals.

JS: Really? So finding this should affect. It modifications our idealized idea of pure, airtight mind at work.

MP: Proper. And I dared to level out this in Vienna, which continues to be a really conventional place in this respect. And all cried. And this system supervisor stated, "You know, with philosophers, we don't believe their life has anything to do with their philosophy." Once I was educating in Innsbruck for a short while, there was a researcher who was additionally very pious. And he stated issues like "we don't want to talk about these things, time." And so I never introduced it once more.

JS: It feels like my expertise with the Dia Artwork Basis once I was working on a Carl Andre retrospective listing (Sculpture as Place: 1958-2010). There were certain issues that should not be talked about. Like his trial within the 1980s, his artist Ana Mendieta's premature demise.

MP: Carl Andre's biography is definitely problematic. It isn’t a typical case.

JS: He has a terrible suspicious suspicion round him. It might flip a critical considering educational mass into a noir-seeker. There isn’t a doubt that the event has elevated its thriller and introduced an unreliable sublayer to poetry and art.

MP: Whenever you first invited me to put in writing Andrei's poetry to Dia, I didn't know much about him. That's why I needed to tackle the task. I really like something I don't know. It’s now clear that the lifetime of Andrei is all the time destroyed by his horrible tragedy. It’s fairly clear that something horrible occurred. Two have been very drunk. That they had a screaming match. But it is fairly attainable that Ana Mendieta jumped out of the window, as Andre claims.

JS: We by no means know.

MP: But in such a case I consider in the regulation. In different words, since Andre was launched, we must respond accordingly. The jury just isn’t the solution. And God is aware of that Andrea was punished for what occurred when he was expelled from the USA for many years, and that he has little consideration abroad and that he is being treated as a couple here at house. In the identical approach I really feel O.J. Simpson.

JS: Oh, boy! We actually get to it now.

MP: Nicely, I followed the Simpson case rigorously, particularly when his home was about five minutes away from the residence and barely prevented the infinite speak concerning the homicide and trial. However I especially admire Ezra Edelman's movie O.J.: Made in America, which understands the complexities and irony of the Saga. In fact, Simpson had been responsible of Nicole's murder. I despise Dream Group and their styles of techniques O.J. off the hook. Meanwhile, Edelman's movie exhibits how O.J. was driven to do what he did. He was / is a tragic determine given his nice potential

JS: Is it potential that poetry critics are drawn to tragic figures? You converse O.J. as if he have been a written protagonist.

MP: Perhaps. What I’ve greater than something is that when he was removed, I feel it was cruel to his neighbors here in Brentwood hound him wherever he went and transported indicators of "Exit, murderer!" And so forth. And the every day nausea at fuel stations and buying facilities was definitely a racist part.

JS: What other poetry biographies are you interested by?

MP: Nicely John Ashbery died lately and his biographies are at work. Karen Rothman, the writer of the biography of Ashbery (first release, second coming), was lately within the city and interviewed me. I feel he's doing a fantastic job and I take pleasure in a fantastic interview. At the similar time, I couldn’t assume that biographers have to be careful to not rely an excessive amount of on interviews as a result of everyone who interviews does not likely inform the reality, as we see.

JS: As of now, you are trying to be truthful, however you stick. And inevitably, the journalists also determine to keep us again, in all probability for their very own benefit. I typically don't like enough. I like telling the story and beginning to exaggerate and beautify the truth.

MP: Positive! However the aim of biography is to be precise. And trustworthy. And when Karen asked me how I felt John's late poetry, it was troublesome. I'm not going to say (as I’m afraid I consider) that in a later poem there is a certain fall. Nor do I need to mention within the biography saying that perhaps John has revealed too many books in the previous few many years, regardless that it will. So I stored silent in these issues, as I'm positive most people. Subsequently, the biography of the dwelling (or just lately lifeless) have to be careful not to rely an excessive amount of on interviews. The interviewee might have so much at stake

JS: I truly worked with John Ashbery as secretary for a number of years initially of the millennium. If Karen Rothman requested me about an interview, I might simply attempt to give her an trustworthy but comical image of the day in John Ashbery's life. So that he might see what he was a boyfriend, he was.

MP: In fact he was. He also had an exquisite sense of humor.

JS: Especially when he had a number of drinks in him

MP: I have a superb story. Soon after Getty opened her new position on the hill, she visited me and walked in a painting collection that was still fairly spotty, as John said, telling her husband David (Kermani) on the telephone: they know they actually have work.

JS: Good

MP: Once I was dinner, John made himself a drink or two. And then at dinner (we had six of us), she began to really feel pretty wild and requested the poet Ralph Angel, who was present, to take her residence. As Ralph stored him out for the night time, John rotated and identified the perfect Blanche DuBois -mallissaan: "I have always depended on the kindness of visitors." It was so enjoyable!

JS: Blanche DuBois? I've all the time described it as "his master Magoo-ish tone." He used this comic shout when he was pleased helpless. Look, I've never acquired the meant reference. You assume it makes rather more sense. I hear him nonetheless. He requested me in the same voice, "What are you going to be when you grow up?"

MP: It's very candy.

JS: I do know. It was cute. We two have been a sort of felony. We might take the entire morning to open the mail. He finally ended up saying a couple of letters to me. I may need written the newest couple of poems on the pc. But when David have been to exit, he would say a criminal offense, we crawl the wine cabinet. And then we actually brush our tooth within the toilet when David was on his approach again to the elevator. It's like that. I'd wish to try to make JA's life really feel like a TV web page. It is something he really favored.

MP: However it's a partial view, isn't it? Ashbery, which I knew, may be very introspective and considerate. And uncertain.

JS: Good Point.

MP: And in the direction of the top of his life, which his pals advised me, he was apparently fairly depressed, apprehensive if he may need been unsuccessful. His books have been not often reviewed, and he felt as though he was previous age.

JS: And he received more consideration than another New York poets together.

MP: Another nice favourite during this time is John Cage. And though he has acquired plenty of consideration, I just lately promised his letters, and I don't assume he's acquired him. I'd like to put in writing a guide – although not a biography! – Cage. My drawback doesn't know enough about music.

JS: I turned very near the Fluxus artist Alison Knowles, and started in Cage class at New Faculty. This has all the time led to Cage being, above all, a instructor.

MP: Yes, I agree. His work is an indisputable pedagogical process. And the Fluxus individuals held their Cage coach.

MP: I’ve read the letter again selected the east of [Wesleyan]they usually assure me that Cage is understood a variety of abuse. Individuals don’t understand how enjoyable loving and dedicated he was, as within the fascinating letters of Paris after World Struggle II, to his mother and father. For too lengthy Cage has been thought-about a sort of disciplined Zen thinker

JS:… sage. Hiljaisuuden profeetta

MP: täsmälleen. Mutta Cage ei pitänyt siitä lainkaan. Hänen viime vuosiinsa asti hän poltti ja joi paljon ja rakasti hyvää ruokaa. Hän oli äärimmäisen käytännöllinen ja silmät palkinnolla. Hän edisti taidettaan hyvin huolellisesti. Hän käytti hyväkseen kaikkia tilanteita. Hän teki mitä oli tehtävä. Jos ainoa tapa, jolla hän voisi tehdä rahaa, oli tehdä vesipalloa, hän teki vesipallon.

JS: Ha. Ja hänellä oli tämä upea naurua. Ja hän oli ehkä surkea, eikö? Ehkä tämä oli hänen dadaistinsa tai jopa absurdisti.

MP: Cage pysyi kanssani Stanfordissa, kun meillä oli suuri Cagefest vuonna 1992, ei kauan ennen hänen ennenaikaista kuolemaansa. Kävin ystäväni kehotuksesta luomutuotteiden myymälään ostamaan kaiken tämän erikoisen maapähkinävoita ja banaaneja ja niin edelleen, jotka sopisivat hänen makrobiottisen ruokavalionsa. Ja ensimmäinen ilta, hän sanoi naurettavasti: ”Olisin todella voinut mennä suurelle mehukkaalle pihalle.” Tietenkin hän ei! Mutta se on Cage-puolen kirja, joka tulee ulos kirjaimista. Yhdessä kirjeessä Pariisin vanhemmille hän kertoo, kuinka suuri sosiaalinen elämä on, kuinka monta kiehtovaa taiteilijaa hän on tavannut! Mutta hän tuntee myös tekevänsä liikaa juoksevaa ja juhlia, ja hänen pitäisi päästä töihin – jota hän voi tehdä vain New Yorkissa – mutta sitten taas kuinka ihana se on Pariisissa!

JS: Kuulostaa was capable of be very open with his mother and father.

MP: To an extent, although in fact not about his personal life. Oh, and there’s one delightful letter [July 1944] he wrote shortly after he and Merce Cunningham had develop into lovers, when he was nonetheless married to Xenia. “pardon the intrusion, but when in september [sic] will you be back? I would like to measure my breath in relation to the air between us.”

JS: A bit more flirtatious than you’d anticipate from the quickly-to-be scholar of Buddhism, with its emphasis on curbing want.

MP: Right here’s one other great one from 1944: “Dear Merce, Saturday night, nearly went crazy, because not solving my problems until they occur, I very suddenly realized you were gone. …” And he comforts himself by adding, “It’s very simple now, because I’m looking forward to seeing you again rather than backward to having seen you recently. That’s a happy way to be.”

JS: I look ahead to seeing you once more. Fairly than backward to having seen you latterly. That reads like a brief poem.

MP: Isn’t that a pretty assertion? Right here’s another one: “So, your spirit is with me. Did you send it or do I just have it?” That’s the uniquely Cagean tone I like a lot.


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